26 dec. 2014

Teoria solara a plusvalorii -- The solar theory of surplus value

TEZA: Sursa  plusvalorii este soarele(energia solara) si pamantul(energia telurica)
THESIS : Source of surplus value is the sun (solar energy) and earth (earthy energy)

Note explicative se vor prezenta si in engleza
Notes: will be presented also in English 

Evident, cele spuse aici se vor lega strans cu cele prezentate in articolele ce au facut referire la Calea a treia de dezvoltare economic-sociala a civilizatiei noastre.
Obviously, what is said here will bind tightly to those presented in articles who made reference to Third Way of social-economic development of our civilization.

                                              va urma (to be continued)

24 dec. 2014

ADAM si EVA sunt gemeni homozigoti ­ ADAM and EVA are monozygotic twin


TEZA : Orice specie de animale care se inmultesc sexuat prin indivizi de sexe diferite masculi si femele apare in mod natural dintr-o pereche initiala de gemeni homozigoti. Adam si Eva, prima pereche din specia homo sapiens sapiens au fost gemeni homozigot. ­ 
THESIS:  Any species that breed sexually by individuals of different sexes males and females occurs naturally in a pair of monozygotic twinstwins . Adam and Eve first homo sapiens sapiens pair were monozygotic twins.

Note explicative se vor prezenta si in engleza sau franceza ­ 
Notes: will be presented also in English or French

a) Ce este specia in cazul animalelor cu inmultire numai sexuata si cu indivizi de sexe diferite adica de sex masculin si de sex feminin?

What is the species for the animals of different sexes?

Premierement Buffon (1749) définit l'espèce comme un groupe d'animaux étant capables de se reproduire entre eux.
Au XXe siècle(1942) sans le citer, le biologiste américain, Ernst Mayr dit : une espèce est une population ou un ensemble de populations dont les individus peuvent effectivement ou potentiellement se reproduire entre eux et engendrer une descendance viable et féconde, dans des conditions naturelles. Ainsi, l'espèce est la plus grande unité de population au sein de laquelle le flux génétique est possible et les individus d'une même espèce sont donc génétiquement isolés d’autres ensembles équivalents du point de vue reproductif.

Din aceste doua definitii rezulta clar ca o pereche de animale ori este intr-o specie ori nu este, exact cum si o femeie ori este insarcinata ori nu este. – De ces deux définitions est clair qu'un couple se trouvent dans une espèce animale ou non, exactement comme une femme qui est enceinte ou non .

b) Si atunci apare intrebarea : daca este clar ca in cadrul unei specii se produc prin evolutia intraspecifica tot felul de modificari de caractere rasiale, cum se produce acel salt brusc in care o pereche nu mai este in aceiasi specie cu cei care i-au dat nastere.
Nu stim inca, dar este evident ca un asemenea salt fiind ceva mult mai extraordinar decat simpla evolutie intraspecifica fixata de rasele speciei(vezi mai ales exemplul raselor animalelor domestice unde selectia naturala este mult ajutata de om)  nu poate apare in doua locuri diferite simultan si in doua familii diferite. Este deci mai rational sa credem ca o mutatie specifica(creatoare de o noua specie) apare purtata de gemeni intr-o anume familie, gemeni care pentru a perpetua noua specie trebuie sa fie de sexe diferite si sa comita incestul reproducandu-se intre ei si vom vedea - lucru extraordinar - ca in miturile popoarelor exista aceasta credinta despre care eu nu stiam atunci cand m-am gandit la mitul biblic despre crearea omului prin perechea primordiala Adam si Eva.
Exista doua tipuri de gemeni si anume: dizygotic si monozygotic(homozygotic)
In continuare voi prezenta cateva date generale despre ce inseamna aceste doua situatii dar in limba engleza asa cum este informatia preluata si care astfel va fi inteleasa de mult mai multi cititori fiind sigur ca nativii de limba romana vor intelege si textul englez.
Dizygotic twins (often referred to as fraternal), are the result of two eggs fertilized by two separate sperm. Although most women only release a single egg in an ovulation cycle, sometimes multiples eggs are released. Dizygotic twins share about 50% of their genetic traits, the same as any other siblings born at different times.
The correct term for identical twinning is  monozygotic. Monozygotic twins form from a single (mono) fertilized egg (zygote). The zygote splits into two parts after conception, resulting in the development of two individual embryos. Because the two embryos are the result of a single egg/sperm combination, they have the same genetic origins. They have the same DNA.
Monozygotic twins are always the same gender.However, there have been a few reported cases of a genetic mutation in monozygotic male twins. For some reason, after the zygote splits, one twin loses a Y chromosome and develops as a female.
Regarding spontaneous or natural monozygotic twinning, a recent theory proposes that monozygotic twins are formed after ablastocyst essentially collapses, splitting the progenitor cells (those that contain the body's fundamental genetic material) in half, leaving the same genetic material divided in two on opposite sides of the embryo. Eventually, two separate fetuses develop. Spontaneous division of the zygote into two embryos is not considered to be a hereditary trait, but rather a spontaneous or random even.
Monozygotic twins, although genetically very similar, are not genetically exactly the same. The researchers studied 92 pairs of monozygotic twins, and they were able to estimate that on average, a pair of monozygotic twins will have about 360 genetic differences that occurred very early in fetal development. These genetic differences that occur very early in fetal development will be present in a very large proportion of body cells. Such mutational differences can, in theory, occur at any point during life, but those that occur at a later stage will be present in a much smaller proportion of body cells.
There are also half-identical or semi-identical twins and thus can be the same sex or opposite sexes. These "half-identical twins" are hypothesized to occur when an unfertilized egg cleaves into two identical attached ova and which are viable for fertilization. Both cloned ova are then fertilized by different sperm and the coalesced eggs undergo further cell duplications developing as a chimeric blastomere. If this blastomere then undergoes a twinning event, two embryos will be formed, each of which have different paternal genes and identical maternal genes.  
Incest between twins
While in modern Western European culture such behaviour is considered taboo and is quite rare, incest between twins is a common feature in Indo-European Asian (such as Japan, the Philippines, and Bali) and Oceanian mytology
According to Hindu mythology, Manu and Shraddha, the first humans on earth, were fraternal twins.
According to Tagalog mythology, Malakas ("strong") and Maganda ("beautiful"), the first humans on earth, were fraternal twins.
An old Japanese myth says that if two star-crossed lovers commit dual suicide, they are reincarnated as fraternal twins.

Astfel putem spune ca mitul biblic privind aparitia omului din Adam si Eva cu facerea Evei din coasta lui Adam(precum o clona desi de sex opus) trimite la interpretarea genetica, credem noi corecta, ca Adam si Eva au fost gemeni (de fapt gemeni homozigoti), idee ce o gasim incriptata si in miturile multor populatii.

Ar fi interesant de vazut daca si pentru rasa neagra din Africa -leaganul prezumat al lui Homo sapiens- exista asemenea mituri.


PS.Putem presupune ca Adam si Eva au facut mai mult decat un salt de la o specie la alta ci absolut fantastic de la un regn-regnul animal- la un nou regn in interiorul caruia specia Homo sapiens sapiens evolueaza de atunci si anume regnul noetic , homo sapiens sapiens fiind o fiinta cu nous .
PS. We can assume that Adam and Eve did more than a jump from one species to another but absolutely fantastic from the animal kingdom in a new kingdom within which the species Homo sapiens sapiens evolves since then, namely noetic kingdom, homo sapiens sapiens having  "nous".

UPDATE(30.12.2016)
Suntem in masura, ca dupa ce la comentarii am mai publicat cele gasite in cadrul acestei cercetari in vederea confirmarii sau infirmarii ipotezei asumate de autor in cursul acestui studiu referitor la confirmarea stiintifica a mitului biblic Adamic, ceea ce nu inseamna ca noi consideram ca Biblia confirma o creatie divina, ci doar ca este posibil ca in acel text sa fie incifrate niste cunostinte mai vechi despre omenire.
Astfel asteptam sa apara acele dovezi care sa contrazica ipotezele privind aparitia si dezvoltarea specei noastre in paralel in diverse locuri indepartate de pe glob si deasemeni unificarea datelor cand au trait cei doi stramosi primordiali ai speciei respectiv Mt-Eva si Y-Adam si ele au aparut.
Suntem in masura sa afirmam ca dupa ce datele privind acesti stramosi se deosebeau cu multe zeci de mii de ani, azi putem afirma(vezi comentariul de mai jos din 29.12.2014)
ca Homo sapiens sapiens a aparut in Etiopia din subspecia mai veche Homo sapiens idaltu avand o vechime de 150000-160000 ani. Deasemeni acest lucru restrange aria de speciatie pentru specia noastra la Africa(Etiopia) zona in care s-au descopert in continuitate succesive momente in evolutia omului respectiv a genului homo in ultimele milioane de ani reprezentate prin fosilele descoperite, datate si clasificate, fiind inlaturata ipoteza ca stramosii nostri directi au putut rezulta din evolutia neanderthalienilor care astfel credem ca au fost o specie diferita a genului homo.
In continuare numai evolutia geneticii si lamurirea mai completa a ceea ce se numeste speciatie va confirma sau infirma ipoteza noastra Adamica.
Oricum ceea ce noi credeam intro epoca in care lumea stiintifica credea altfel, astazi s-a dovedit a fi asa cum credeam noi.
Adica loc comun si data comuna pentru aparitia pe Terra a stramosilor nostri masculini si feminini, care noi credem si asteptam sa se dovedeasca ca au fost un unic Adam si o unica Eva din care ne tragem toti pentruca oricum toate femeile de azi se trag din mtEva si toti barbatii se trag din Y-Adam atunci de ce nu ar fi rational sa credem ca acestia doi chiar au fost parintii celor de azi si eu cred ca si ai speciei noastre homo sapiens sapiens si ca singura explicatie a miraculoasei aparitii a unei astfel de mutatii genetice nu poate fi decat ca este vorba despre Eva clona lui Adam ca geaman homozigot dar si invers Adam ca geaman homozigot clona a Evei, asa cum sunt gemenii homozigoti unul in raport de celalalt si ca deci ideea cu « coasta » nu este decat o incriptare a acestui adevar la nivelul stiintei din epoca scrierii textului biblic.
Vom reveni pe masura ce genetica va aduce si alte probe.

UPDATE(30.12.2016)
Scientists tracking evolution through changes in mitochondrial DNA, which is passed from mother to daughter, have estimated that humans derive their mitochrondrial genes from an ancestral mother nicknamed "Eve" who lived in Africa about 150,000 years ago. Other scientists studying the male Y chromosome have reached similar conclusions. The new Herto fossils are from a population living at exactly this time.
"In a sense, these genetic findings were impossible to seriously test without a good fossil record from Africa," said White. "Back in 1982, when Becky Cann and Allan Wilson of UC Berkeley were using molecules to study evolution, they concluded that the common ancestors of all modern humans lived in Africa 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. For the last 20 years we've been looking for good, well-dated fossil evidence of that antiquity
While these previous discoveries appear also to be Homo sapiens, the new finds from Herto are older, well-dated and more complete without sharing characteristics of more primitive human ancestors such as Homo erectus or the neanderthals
When considered with the evidence from other sites, this shows that modern human morphology emerged in Africa long before the Neanderthals vanished from Eurasia." Because of this, these finds have been generally seen as a setback for the Multiregional model of human evolution (which argues that modern humans evolved in geographically widespread areas of the world) and strong support for the competing Out Of Africa model (which argues that modern humans evolved in Africa and spread out from there, displacing any preexisting populations)


23 dec. 2014

BARBARA si CELARENT singurele silogisme independente-BARBARA and CELARENT the only independent syllogisms

Pentru a nu pierde vremea, voi indica aici  cateva texte pregatitore si anume:  http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silogism.
 http://www.scribd.com/doc/43670692/Silogismul#scribd
 http://www.noiq.ro/index.php?/archives/1043-Jucriile-silogismului-II-figurile-i-modurile-valide.html

Celor trei figuri silogistice deja cunoscute de la Aristotel:      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prior_Analytics#The_fourth_figure
li s-a adaugat de catre Theophrastus elevul si succesorul lui Aristotel la conducerea scolii peripatetice  o figura a patra, cunoscuta ulterior sub numele de "figura galenica" intrucat a fost popularizata  de catre medicul invatat Galenus(129-199). In fapt Aristotel cunostea si aceasta figura dar o considera o consecinta a figurii intai ca un mod indirect al acesteia, motiv pentru care Kant care afirma ca Silogistica a iesit perfecta chiar de la Aristotel: http://www.scritub.com/stiinta/matematica/SILOGISTICA51925.php
elimina aceasta figura si silogismele ei dintre silogismele fundamentale care dupa Galenus erau 16, revenind doar  la cele 12 introduse de Aristotel 

Mai adaug pentru cei interesati si studiul privind valoarea cognitiva a silogismului:
 http://www.bursedoctorale.ro/public/documente/articole/1332175231_OanaGhinet_Controverse%20logice%20si%20filosofice%20asupra%20silogismului_Symposion.pdf

Fata de acestea teza mea este ca de fapt nu exista decat doua silogisme independente si anume primele doua  din figura I,  mnemotehnic denumite in evul mediu  BARBARA si CELARENT, ele fiind independente(nedeductibile unul din celalalt) dar obligate sa coexiste precum fetele foii de hartie, exact ca si legile logicii: identitatea si noncontradictia(tertiul exclus in opinia mea nefiind independent iar ratiunea suficienta netinand numai de logica ci introducand ratiunea in stiinta experimentala a fenomenului observabil) .

Demonstratia care nu este aproape imposibila precum cea a Marii teoreme Fermat scrisa de acesta pe un colt de scrisoare, ba nici macar dificila,  o las pentru un eventual Update convins ca cei interesati o vor putea face si singuri cu nu prea multa osteneala.